As miRNAs can regulate the expression of a broad spectrum of genes, are used as biomarkers, and can serve as therapeutic tools, the authors decided to identify and characterize differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) cells compared to unaffected control (CTRL) cells. In this study, an integrated miRNAseq and RNAseq analysis using the same cohort of primary FRDA and CTRL cells was performed. The results of the transcriptome studies were supported by bioinformatic analyses and validated by qRT-PCR. miRNA interactions with target genes were assessed by luciferase assays, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting. In silico analysis identified the FXN transcript as a target of five miRNAs upregulated in FRDA cells. Further studies confirmed that miRNA-224-5p indeed targets FXN, resulting in decreases in mRNA and protein levels. The authors also validated the ability of miRNA-10a-5p to bind and regulate the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important modulator of neuronal growth. The authors observed a significant decrease in the levels of miRNA-10a-5p and increase in the levels of BDNF upon correction of FRDA cells via zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated excision of expanded GAA repeats. This comprehensive transcriptome analyses identified miRNA-224-5p and miRNA-10a-5p as negative regulators of the FXN and BDNF expression, respectively. These results emphasize not only the importance of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of FRDA but also their potential as therapeutic targets for this disease.

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