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Ferroptosis in Friedreich's Ataxia: A Metal-Induced Neurodegenerative Disease

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, arising from the accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species when glutathione-dependent repair systems are compromised. Lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial impairment and iron dyshomeostasis are the hallmark of ferroptosis, which is emerging as a crucial player in neurodegeneration. This review provides an analysis of the most recent advances in ferroptosis, with a special focus on Friedreich's Ataxia (FA), the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease, caused by reduced levels of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and antioxidant defenses. The hypothesis is that the iron-induced oxidative damage accumulates over time in FA, lowering the ferroptosis threshold and leading to neuronal cell death and, at last, to cardiac failure. The use of anti-ferroptosis drugs combined with treatments able to activate the antioxidant response will be of paramount importance in FA therapy, such as in many other neurodegenerative diseases triggered by oxidative stress.

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