Mitochondria play a key role in cellular functions, including energy production and oxidative stress regulation. For this reason, maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and proteostasis (homeostasis of the proteome) is essential for cellular health. Therefore, there are different mitochondrial quality control mechanisms, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs), mitophagy, or mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR). The last item is a stress response that occurs when stress is present within mitochondria and, especially, when the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix surpasses the folding capacity of the mitochondrion. In response to this, molecular chaperones and proteases as well as the mitochondrial antioxidant system are activated to restore mitochondrial proteostasis and cellular function. In disease contexts, mtUPR modulation holds therapeutic potential by mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary mitochondrial diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), or Friedreich's Ataxia (FA), there is a wealth of evidence demonstrating that the modulation of mtUPR helps to reduce neurodegeneration and its associated symptoms in various cellular and animal models. These findings underscore mtUPR's role as a promising therapeutic target in combating these devastating disorders.

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