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The smoothened agonist SAG reduces mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity of frataxin-deficient astrocytes

Similar to other neurodegenerative pathologies, previous studies suggested that in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) astrocytes might contribute to the progression of the disease. To fully understand the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in FRDA, the authors investigated the reactivity status and functioning of cultured human astrocytes after frataxin depletion using an RNA interference-based approach and tested the effect of pharmacologically modulating the SHH pathway as a novel neuroprotective strategy. Loss of cell viability, mitochondrial alterations, increased autophagy and lipid accumulation in cultured astrocytes upon frataxin depletion were observed. Besides, frataxin-deficient cells show higher expression of several A1-reactivity markers and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, most of these defects were prevented by chronically treating the cells with the smoothened agonist SAG. Furthermore, in vitro culture of neurons with conditioned medium from frataxin-deficient astrocytes results in a reduction of neuronal survival, neurite length and synapse formation. However, when frataxin-deficient astrocytes were chronically treated with SAG, these alterations in neurons were not observed. These results demonstrate that the pharmacological activation of the SHH pathway could be used as a target to modulate astrocyte reactivity and neuron-glia interactions to prevent neurodegeneration in Friedreich's ataxia.

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